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Table 3 shows the results from estimating equation 1 for additional outcome variables.
In columns 1-2, the dependent variable is the total number of products containing
molecule j that were sold at time t. We find that the introduction of product patent did
not generate any significant effect on the number of products containing that molecule.
In contrast, product patents claiming the active ingredient led to a significant decline in
the number of products sold. The point estimate is -2.4 and is significant at the 5%
level, implying that the patent on the base molecule, indeed, led to the withdrawal of,
on average, two generics from the market. Nevertheless, in columns 3-4, we do not find
any corresponding significant effect of product patent enforcement (or type of product
patent) on utilization as measured by the log of standardized units (total number of
Interestingly, in columns 5-6, we find that the product patent on the active ingredient
led to Trimox Antibiotic a significant Buy Trimox increase in the fraction of total quantity sold by the innovator of
almost 40 percent. One possible explanation for why the share sold to the innovator did
not increase to 100 percent in all cases could be the existence of an agreement between
the innovator and Amoxil Trimox a generic firm such as license deals or joint ventures to produce and
market the drug. Our interviews with industry executives reveal that comprehensive
information on such deals is not publicly available.
Our model predicts differential effects of patent enforcement on the drugs that are
under price control. Out of 160 molecules in the CNS category, only nine are under
government price controls. However, out of the nine that are under price control, only
one molecule was subjected to a product patent implying that, at least within this
therapeutic segment, the Trimox 500mg likely effect of price controls on curbing price increases is
This paper explores the effects of product patent protection on drug prices and
utilization using data on one particular therapeutic segment relating to central nervous
system treatments in the Indian pharmaceuticals market. The study highlights the
importance of the distinction between different types of product patents and their
differential impact on average prices and total utilization of drugs. The analysis finds a
statistically significant effect of Generic Trimox a sub-class of product patents. In particular, product
patents that were granted on the active ingredient instead of incremental innovations of
a drug, led to a significant increase in drug prices, and an increase in the fraction of
total quantity sold to the innovator with a corresponding withdrawal of generics from
the pharmaceutical market in India. The purpose of this paper is to provoke discussion
on Trimox Indications some of the early estimates emerging from preliminary analysis using this data. In
forthcoming work we plan to extend the analysis to all therapeutic segments of the
Indian pharmaceutical market, and explore in greater detail heterogeneous effects by
sub-therapeutic segments, welfare implications of stringent patent protection using
demand and supply parameters estimated earlier in the literature, and whether there are
any substitution effects between patents and price controls as alternative policy approaches.
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from the Pharmaceutical Industry,? 2004, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 119,
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Patent Reform on the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry,? in Iain Cockburn and Matthew
Slaughter (eds.), The Location of Biopharmaceutical Activity, NBER and University of
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Competition in the U.S. Pharmaceutical Industry,? Brookings Papers: Microeconomics
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TRIPS and Developing Countries?, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2005.
Chaudhuri, S., Goldberg, P. and Jia, P. 2006. ?Estimating the Effects of Global Patent
Protection in Pharmaceuticals: A Case Study of Quinolones in India,?American
Cockburn, I. and Lanjouw, J. 2001. ?New Pills for Poor People?: Empirical Evidence
after GATT,? World Development, 29, 265-289
Duggan, M. and Scott Morton, F. 2006. ?The Distortionary Effects of Government
Procurement: Evidence for Medicaid Prescription Drug Purchasing.? Quarterly Journal
of Economics, 1-31.
Duggan, M. and Scott Morton, F. 2010. ?The Impact of Medicare Part D on
Pharmaceutical Prices Trimox 500 and Trimox 500 Mg Utilization.? American Economic Review, March.
Ellison, G., Ellison, S., 2007. ?Strategic Entry Deterrence and the Behavior Order Trimox of
Pharmaceutical Incumbents Prior to Patent Expiration,? MIT Working Paper.
Ellison, S., Cockburn, I., Grilliches, Z. and Hausman, J. 1997. ?Characteristics of
Demand for Pharmaceutical Products: An Examination of Four Cephalosporins?, The
RAND Journal of Economics, Vol. 28, No. 3, 426-446.
Evans, N.2007. ?India's New Patent Regime and its Impact on the Global
Pharmaceutical Industry,? Pharmaceutical Law Insight, September.
Frank, R.G., Salkever, D.S., 1997. ?Generic Entry and the Pricing of Pharmaceuticals,?
Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 6, 75�90.
Fink, C. 2001. ?Patent Protection, Transnational Corporations, and Market Structure: A
Simulation Study of the Indian Pharmaceutical industry,? Journal of Industry,
Competition and Trade, 1:1, 101-121.
Fink, C. and Maskus, K. 2000. Intellectual Property and Trimox Online Development: Lessons from
Recent Economic Research (eds.), Washington: Buy Trimox Online the World Bank.
Government of India, 2005, ?Manual of Trimox Side Effects Patent Practice and Procedure,? Patent Office
Government of India, 2005, ?Annual Report,? Controller General of Patents, Designs &
Government of India, 2010, ?Annual Report,? National Pharmaceutical Pricing
Authority, Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers
Grabowski, H., Vernon, J., 1996. ?Longer Patents for Increased Generic Competition in
the U.S. the Waxman�Hatch Act after One Decade,? PharmacoEconomics, 10, 1996,
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